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Grant Wood Grant Wood
1891-1942 Grant Wood Locations His family moved to Cedar Rapids after his father died in 1901. Soon thereafter he began as an apprentice in a local metal shop. After graduating from Washington High School (Cedar Rapids, Iowa) , Wood enrolled in an art school in Minneapolis in 1910, and returned a year later to teach in a one-room schoolhouse. In 1913 he enrolled at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and did some work as a silversmith. From 1920 to 1928 he made four trips to Europe, where he studied many styles of painting, especially impressionism and post-impressionism. But it was the work of Jan Van Eyck that influenced him to take on the clarity of this new technique and to incorporate it in his new works. From 1924 to 1935 Wood lived in the loft of a carriage house that he turned into his personal studio at "5 Turner Alley" (the studio had no address until Wood made one up himself). In 1932, Wood helped found the Stone City Art Colony near his hometown to help artists get through the Great Depression. He became a great proponent of regionalism in the arts, lecturing throughout the country on the topic. Wood taught painting at the University of Iowa's School of Art beginning in 1934. During that time, he supervised mural painting projects, mentored students, produced a variety of his own works, and became a key part of the University's cultural community. On February 12, 1942, one day before his 51st birthday, Wood died at the university hospital of liver cancer. When Wood died, his estate went to his sister, Nan Wood Graham, the woman portrayed in American Gothic. When she died in 1990, her estate, along with Wood's personal effects and various works of art, became the property of the Figge Art Museum in Davenport, Iowa. Wood was an active painter from an extremely young age until his death, and although he is best known for his paintings, he worked in a large number of media, including ink, charcoal, ceramics, metal, wood and found objects. Throughout his life he hired out his talents to many Iowa-based businesses as a steady source of income. This included painting advertisements, sketching rooms of a mortuary house for promotional flyers and, in one case, designing the corn-themed decor (including chandelier) for the dining room of a hotel. In addition, his 1928 trip to Munich was to oversee the making of the stained-glass windows he had designed for a Veterans Memorial Building in Cedar Rapids. He again returned to Cedar Rapids to teach Junior High students after serving in the army as a camouflage painter.
Gustaf Wilhelm Palm Gustaf Wilhelm Palm
Swedish, 1810-1890,Swedish painter. He entered the Royal Academy of Arts in Stockholm in 1828, where he was a student of Carl Johan Fahlcrantz. Following a tour of Norway he went, via Copenhagen, to Berlin and Vienna for three years in order to seek a cure for an eye illness. He was influenced there by Biedermeier painting and Ferdinand Georg Waldm?ller, and also by the architectural painters Jakob Alt (1789-1872) and his son Rudolf Alt.
Gustav Wentzel Gustav Wentzel
(7 October 1859 - 10 February 1927) was a Norwegian painter. He was best known for interiors and domestic and rural scenes. His artistic style was associated with Naturalism and noted for accurate observations and attention to detail. Gustav Wentzel was born in Christiania. He was a pupil of painter Knud Bergslien (1879-81) of and Frits Thaulow in 1883. He also studied for a time in Paris at the Academie Julian in 1884 and at Academie Colarossi with Leon Bonnat and Alfred Philippe Roll (1888-89). Wentzel first public painting was exhibited in Albert Cammermeyer bookstore during the autumn of 1879. His painting Snekkersvennen, which had been rejected by the Christiania Kunstforening, led to a lasting dispute and the establishment of an exhibition organized by the artists themselves, which eventually became an annual event called Autumn Exhibition (Høstutstillingen) in Oslo. Among his paintings at the National Gallery of Norway are I fiskernaustet from 1881, Frokost from 1882, and Dans i Setesdal from 1887. Wentzel was decorated Knight, First Class of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav in 1908
Hahn William Hahn William
American Painter, 1829-1887
Hans Weiditz Hans Weiditz
Mainz 1488-1534 Bern
HEDA, Willem Claesz. HEDA, Willem Claesz.
Dutch painter (b. 1594, Haarlem, d. 1680, Haarlem). Dutch still-life painter. His excellent studies of tables laden with food, called ontbijt still life, are seen in many important European galleries. They are characterized by delicate lighting effects and somber colors.
Helen Allingham,R,W.S
1848-1926 Studies of Flowers Studies of Flowers .was a well-known watercolour painter and illustrator of the Victorian era. Helen Mary Elizabeth Paterson was born in Swadlincote in Derbyshire,[1] England. Her sister and her father, a doctor, died of diphtheria in 1862, and the rest of the family went to live in Birmingham. In 1867 she went to study art at the "Female School of Art", a section of what became the Royal College of Art in London, and became an illustrator of children's books. She was a great friend of Kate Greenaway. On 22 August 1874, she married William Allingham, who was almost twice her age. At the time, she was employed in illustrating some of the novels of Thomas Hardy, and they were attracted to one another when they met. Helen Allingham illustrated several books, including Six to sixteen: a story for girls (1876), Happy England (1903) and The homes of Tennyson (1905), written with her brother Arthur Paterson. After her marriage to Allingham, she became a watercolour painter, and she was the first woman to become a full member of the Royal Watercolour Society. As well as landscapes, she completed several portraits, including one of Thomas Carlyle.
Hendrik Willem Mesdag Hendrik Willem Mesdag
Hendrik Willem Mesdag was born on February 23, 1831 in Groningen. His father, a merchant and banker, was an amateur painter who saw to it that his two sons were also educated in the art of painting. He was a Dutch marine painter. He was born in Groningen, the son of the banker Klaas Mesdag and his wife Johanna Wilhelmina van Giffen. Mesdag was encouraged by his father, an amateur painter, to study art. He married Sina van Houten in 1856, and when they inherited a fortune from her father, Mesdag retired from banking to pursue a career as a painter. He studied in Brussels with Willem Roelofs and in 1868 moved to The Hague to paint the sea. In 1870 he exhibited at the Paris Salon and won the gold medal for The Breakers of the North Sea. Preparations for departureIn 1880 he received a commission from a Belgian company to paint a panorama giving a view over the village of Scheveningen on the North Sea coast near The Hague .
Hennessy, William John Hennessy, William John
English, 19th Century.was an Irish artist. William John Hennessy was born in Thomastown, County Kilkenny in 1839. His father, John Hennessy, was forced to leave Ireland in 1848 as a result of his involvement in the Young Ireland movement. He landed in Canada and settled in New York. William, his mother Catherine, and brother joined their father there in 1849. He gained admittance to the National Academy of Design in 1854 and exhibitioned his first works there. Hennessy developed a skill in wood engraving and was hired to illustrate the works of renowned poets, including that of Tennyson, Longfellow and Whittier. As an American he became the co-founder of the Artists?? Fund Society, and an honorary member of the American Society of Painters in Watercolours. In 1870 he moved to London where he became a member of the Royal Institute of Oil Painters in 1902.
Henrietta Mary Ada Ward Henrietta Mary Ada Ward
Historical genre painter.1852-1924
Henry Clarence Whaite Henry Clarence Whaite
British artist, 1828-1912
Henry Otto Wix Henry Otto Wix
Henry Otto Wix (1866 - 1922), also known as Otto Wix, was a German-born landscape and portrait painter who emigrated to the United States in the late 1890s. He studied in New York, but visited Hawaii in 1907 and 1908-9. About 1910, he moved to San Francisco, but visited Hawaii again in 1912. He also made several sketching trips to Mexico. Wixes marriage ended in divorce, resulting in depression and alcoholism. He died by his own hand in Santa Barbara, California on March 13, 1922. Wix is best known for his landscapes in watercolor. The Honolulu Academy of Arts and the Smithsonian American Art Museum are among the public collections holding paintings by Henry Otto Wix
henry wadsworth longfellow henry wadsworth longfellow
1807-C82, American poet, b. Portland, Maine, grad. Bowdoin College, 1825. He wrote some of the most popular poems in American literature, in which he created a new body of romantic American legends. Descended from an established New England family, after college he spent the next three years in Europe, preparing himself for a professorship of modern languages at Bowdoin, where he taught from 1829 to 1835. After the death of his young wife in 1835, Longfellow traveled again to Europe, where he met Frances Appleton, who was to become his second wife after a long courtship. She was the model for the heroine of his prose romance, Hyperion (1839). From 1836 to 1854, Longfellow was professor of modern languages at Harvard, and during these years he became one of an intellectual triumvirate that included Oliver Wendell Holmes and James Russell Lowell. Although a sympathetic and ethical person, Longfellow was uninvolved in the compelling religious and social issues of his time; he did, however, display interest in the abolitionist cause.
Henry Wallis Henry Wallis
British 1830-1916 1916). English painter, writer and collector. He first studied at F. S. Cary academy and in 1848 entered the Royal Academy Schools, London. He is also thought to have trained in Paris at some time in the late 1840s or early 1850s, first in Charles Gleyre atelier and subsequently at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He specialized in portraits of literary figures and scenes from the lives of past writers, as in Dr Johnson at Cave, the Publisher (1854; untraced). His first great success was the Death of Chatterton (London, Tate), which he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1856. The impoverished late 18th-century poet Thomas Chatterton, who while still in his teens had poisoned himself in despair, was a romantic hero for many young and struggling artists in Wallis day. He depicted the poet dead in his London garret, the floor strewn with torn fragments of manuscript and, tellingly, an empty phial near his hand. The painting was universally praised, not least by John Ruskin who described it as faultless and wonderful, advising visitors to examine it well, inch by inch. Although Wallis was only loosely connected with the Pre-Raphaelite movement, his method and style in Chatterton reveal the importance of that connection: the vibrant colours and careful build-up of symbolic detail are typical Pre-Raphaelite concerns. The success of Chatterton was such that, when exhibited in Manchester the following year, it was protected from the jostling crowds by a policeman. It was bought by another artist, Augustus
Henry Walton Henry Walton
British Painter , c 1746-1813 He studied in London under Johan Zoffany c. 1769, after which he completed his training at the Maiden Lane Academy. It was probably Zoffany who introduced Walton to the conversation piece, a genre in which he was to specialize. The Cricket Scene at Harrow School (1771; priv. col., see 1963 exh. cat., no. 1) reveals Walton's debt to Zoffany, but it also shows him to be an exceptional colourist and able to compose his figures with a sense of rare warmth and intimacy. By c. 1778, when he painted the Rev. Charles Tyrrell with his Family
Henry Warren Henry Warren
Henry White Warren (1831-1912) was an American Methodist Episcopal bishop and author, brother of William Fairfield Warren. He was born at Williamsburg, Mass., and graduated in 1853 at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. He taught ancient languages at Wesleyan Academy, Wilbraham, Mass. (1853-55), and then entered the New England Conference (1855). On April 6, 1855, he married Miss Diantha Kilgore, in Lowell, Massachusetts. In 1863 he was a member of the Massachusetts Legislature. His wife died June 21, 1867, after having borne three children: Carrie, Henry and Ellen. After serving churches about Boston he was transferred to the Philadelphia Conference (1871) and was elected Bishop (1880). When he visited Colorado for the first time in 1879 he met the widow of John Wesley Iliff, Mrs. Elizabeth Iliff. They were married on December 27, 1883.
Henry William Beechey Henry William Beechey
Sir Henry William Beechey (12 December 1753 - 28 January 1839), English portrait-painter, was born at Burford, the son of William Beechey (*1732) and Hannah Read (*c1732). He was originally meant for a conveyancer, but a strong love for painting induced him to become a pupil at the Royal Academy in 1772. Some of his smaller portraits gained him considerable reputation; he began to be employed by the nobility, and in 1793 became associate of the Royal Academy. In the same year he was made portrait-painter to Queen Charlotte. His work has been described as relatively sober. He painted the portraits of the members of the royal family, and of nearly all the most famous or fashionable persons of the time. What is considered his finest production is a review of cavalry, a large composition in the foreground of which he introduced portraits of George III, the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York, surrounded by a brilliant staff on horseback. Among his portraits were those of Lord Nelson, John Kemble, and Sarah Siddons. George III and the Prince of Wales reviewing troops was painted in 1798, and obtained for the artist the honour of knighthood, and his election as RA (member of the Academy). This painting was destroyed in the 1992 Windsor Castle fire.
Henry William Pickersgill Henry William Pickersgill
English Painter, 1782-1875 was an English painter specialising in portraits. He was a Royal Academician for almost fifty years, and painted many of the most notable figures of his time. Born in London, Pickersgill was adopted in his youth by a Mr Hall, a silk manufacturer in Spitalfields, who financed his schooling and then took him into the family business. However, when war caused difficult trading conditions, Pickersgill opted to develop his talent for painting into a career, and was a pupil of landscape artist George Arnald between 1802 - 1805 before entering the Royal Academy Schools as a student in November 1805.His early subjects were varied and included landscapes and classical and historical themes, but he eventually settled to portraiture as his speciality. His first exhibit at the Royal Academy was a portrait of his benefactor Mr Hall, and during his lifetime he showed a total of 384 paintings there. He was elected to associate membership of the Academy in November 1822 and full membership in February 1826. Pickersgill was one of the pre-eminent portrait painters of his day. William Wordsworth, George Stephenson, Jeremy Bentham, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington and Faraday were among the many notable people who sat for him. He famously painted author James Silk Buckingham and his wife Elizabeth in Arab costume in 1816, reflecting Buckingham's own travels in the East as well as the fashion of the times for the Orient. The National Portrait Gallery, London has over 50 of his portraits in its collection, including 16 original oils and 35 engravings after him, along with a small number of portraits of Pickersgill himself by others. From 1856?C64 he was librarian of the Royal Academy. He retired from the institution in December 1872, and died at his home in Blandford Square, London at the age of 93. Pickersgill's brother Richard, son Henry Hall and nephew Frederick Richard were also painters.
Henry Wyatt Henry Wyatt
(1460-1537) was an English courtier. A Lancastrian supporter against Richard III, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London. On the accession of Henry VII, he was released and assumed high places at court. He acted as Henry's agent in Scotland. He was admitted to the privy council, and remained high in the royal favour. He was one of Henry VII's executors, and one of Henry VIII's guardians. He was admitted to the privy council of the new king in April 1509, and became a knight of the Bath on 23 July of the same year. In 1511 he was made jointly with Sir Thomas Boleyn constable of Norwich Castle, and on 29 July of the same year was granted an estate, Maidencote, at Estgarstone in Berkshire. At the battle of the Spurs he served in the vanguard (16 August 1513).
Herbert William Weekes Herbert William Weekes
Herbert William Weekes (fl. 1864 - 1904) was a well-known British genre and animal painter of the Victorian Neoclassical period who specialized in portraying animals in humorous, human-like situations. Weekes was born ca. 1842 in Pimlico, London, England to a prominent artistic family: the youngest of five children, his father, Henry Weekes, Sr. (1807 - 1877), was a sculptor and Royal Academician; his brother, Henry, Jr. (fl. 1850 - 1884), was also a genre painter known for his animal studies; and his brother, Frederick (1833 - 1920), was an artist and expert on medieval costume and design. Weekes appears to have used his middle name, William, for all but formal purposes. He lived and worked for most of his life in London, at 21 Oppidans Road, Primrose Hill. In 1865, he married Caroline Anne Henshaw (born ca. 1844), of Hammersmith. "Suspicion (ca. 1900)", oil-on-canvas "Fowl Talk", oil-on-canvas Weekes' signatureKnown as an animal and genre painter of the Victorian Neoclassical style, Weekes' work was popular, and helped expand 19th century animal painting from its traditional role of simply recording beasts into a way of reflecting human life. He frequently personified animals and placed them in situations particular to humans. His work shows a sensitive understanding of his subject matter, and part of his success in capturing the peaceful country atmosphere depicted in so many of his paintings lay in his affection for it. He was greatly influenced by one of the foremost animal painters of the nineteenth century, Sir Edwin Henry Landseer. Weekes contributed illustrations for The Illustrated London News in 1883, and exhibited extensively in various London and provincial galleries. His works were well received - although not by everyone: a contemporary wit described his paintings as eWeekes' Weak Squeakse.
HERREYNS, Willem HERREYNS, Willem
Flemish painter (b. 1743, Antwerpen, d. 1827, Antwerpen)
HOGARTH, William HOGARTH, William
British Painter and Printmaker, 1697-1764 English painter and engraver. He played a crucial part in establishing an English school of painting, both through the quality of his painting and through campaigns to improve the status of the artist in England. He also demonstrated that artists could become independent of wealthy patrons by publishing engravings after their own paintings.
Homer Watson Homer Watson
Canadian Painter, 1855-1936 Canadian painter. The son of a mill-owner, he was born in a region of rural southern Ontario, which he painted throughout his life. In 1874 he moved to Toronto to work at the Notman Photographic Studios; he also spent many hours copying paintings in the Toronto Normal School in order to improve his technique. In 1876 he visited New York, where he was impressed with the carefully composed paintings of the Hudson River school and the rural scenes of George Inness, who encouraged Watson to pursue his career. The following year he returned to Doon to work up his New York sketches into finished paintings. A work of this early period, Landscape with River (1878; Toronto, A.G. Ont.),
Horatio Walker Horatio Walker
(May 12, 1858 - September 27, 1938) was a respected and commercially successful Canadian painter. He worked in oils and watercolors, often depicting scenes of rural life in Canada. He was highly influenced by the French Barbizon school of painting. Horatio Walker was born in 1858 to parents Thomas and Jeanne Maurice Walker. Thomas Walker emigrated in 1856 from Yorkshire, England, to Listowel, Ontario, with his wife of French and English heritage. Having some wealth, Thomas purchased land for lumber in Midwestern Ontario and Horatio was raised in relative comfort. His interest in art may originate from his father who crafted small figures as a hobby, and both his father and the local school teacher encouraged drawing as a pastime. In 1870, on Walkeres 12th birthday, his father brought him to Quebec City, Quebec, for the first time. His father made occasional business trips to the city as part of his timber business. During this sojourn, they visited the Île d'Orleans, in search of pine timber. Walker made subsequent visits to Quebec City during the following years. His formal schooling ended at the Listowel Public School in 1872; he never went on to pursue formal academic training in art. At the age of 15, Walker moved to Toronto, Ontario to apprentice with the photographic firm Notman and Fraser. It was a fortunate opportunity, as several successful artists worked also there; Walker learned watercolour from Robert Gagnon, miniature portrait painting from John Fraser, and painting from Lucius OeBrien and Henri Perre.
HUBER, Wolf HUBER, Wolf
German Northern Renaissance Painter, ca.1490-1553
Hugh William Williams Hugh William Williams
painted Glencoe in 1812 British Painter, 1773-1829
Hugo Wilhelm Kauffmann Hugo Wilhelm Kauffmann
(7 August 1844 - 30 December 1915) was a German painter, the son of Hermann Kauffmann. Kauffmann was born in Hamburg. In 1861 he went to Frankfurt and worked there under Jakob Becker, Edward Jakob von Steinle and Johann Nepomuk Zwerger. From 1863-71 he lived in Kronberg in the Taunus. During this time he spent one winter in Hamburg and a five-month period in Desseldorf too; afterwards he spent 1½ years in Paris, until 1870 when the war drove him out. He lived until 1871 in Munich. He died in Prien at the Chiemsee in 1915.
Ingeborg Westfelt-Eggertz Ingeborg Westfelt-Eggertz
painted Morning - Trouville in 1855-1936
Irving R.Wiles Irving R.Wiles
American Painter, 1861-1948
Isaac Whitehead Isaac Whitehead
Australian c.1819-1881
J. Alden Weir J. Alden Weir
(August 30, 1852 - December 8, 1919) was an American impressionist painter and member of the Cos Cob Art Colony near Greenwich, Connecticut. Weir was also one of the founding members of "The Ten", a loosely-allied group of American artists dissatisfied with professional art organizations, who banded together in 1898 to exhibit their works as a stylistically unified group.
j. f. willumsen j. f. willumsen
(7. september 1863 i København - 4. april 1958 i Cannes) var en af pionererne bag det moderne gennembrud i dansk billedkunst omkring 1900. Han var primært maler, men mestrede de fleste kunstarter og arbejdede desuden som billedhugger, grafiker, keramiker, arkitekt og fotograf. J.F. Willumsen studerede ved Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi fra 1881 til 1885. Efter tre forgæves forsøg på at blive indstillet til afgangsprøven på Kunstakademiet, studerede han på Kunstnernes Frie Studieskoler i København. I 1891 var han med til at stifte Den Frie Udstilling, hvis udstillingsbygning han tegnede i 1898. Willumsen opholdt sig i hovedparten af sit liv uden for Danmarks grænser, hovedsageligt i Frankrig, hvor han under et ophold i Paris 1890-94 blev præget af symbolismen. I de følgende årtier blev han eksponent for flere af epokens kunstretninger og hans stil ændredes i mere ekspressiv retning. Willumsen tilbød en stor del af sine værker og kunstsamling til staten og arbejdede fra 1930'erne på oprettelse af et museum. I 1957, året før hans død, åbnede J.F. Willumsens museum i Frederikssund.
j. w. wallander j. w. wallander
Jan Wallander är en svensk forskare, författare och företagsledare född 1920. Han är son till arkitekten Sven Wallander. Efter sin doktorsexamen var han verksam som nationalekonom vid Studieförbundet Näringsliv och Samhälle som han var chef för i början av 1950-talet, 1953-1961 var han chef för Industrins Utredningsinstitut. Han bytte bana från forskningen till banksektorn när han anställdes som direktör för Sundsvallsbanken 1961.
J.M.W.Turner J.M.W.Turner
English Romantic Painter, 1775-1851, British land- and seascape artist. Born in London the son of a barber, Turner was precociously talented. He entered the RA Schools in 1789, had a drawing exhibited at the academy in 1790, and was elected a full academician in 1802. He became professor of perspective in 1807. A prolific artist of amazing range of subject and style, he began work in water-colours, quickly founding both a reputation and a fortune, which made him independent of changing public taste. His work was not appreciated by everyone, but his supporters included Thomas Lawrence, John Ruskin, and the earl of Egremont. He died in eccentric obscurity under a false name.
J.S. Wahl J.S. Wahl
painted Jens Bing in1700s
Jack wilkinson Smith Jack wilkinson Smith
1873 - 1949
Jacob de Wit Jacob de Wit
(19 December 1695 - 12 November 1754) was a Dutch artist and interior decorator who painted many religious scenes. De Wit was born in Amsterdam, and became famous for his door and ceiling paintings. He lived on the Keizersgracht in Amsterdam, and many of the buildings on the Keizersgracht still have door or ceiling paintings done by him. Since many of the families who lived in Amsterdam in those days had country villas, de Wit also painted in houses in the fashionable areas of Haarlem and the Vecht river. According to the RKD he was the pupil of Albert Spiers in Amsterdam and Jacob van Hal in Antwerp where he became a member of the Guild of St. Luke in 1714. His pupils were Jan de Groot (painter from The Hague), Dionys van Nijmegen, Jan Punt, Pieter Tanje, and the brothers Frans and Jacob Xavery. De Wit died in Amsterdam in 1754.Tako Hajo Jelgersma was his follower.
Jacob Wessel Jacob Wessel
painted Portrait of Hieronim Florian Radziwiłł. in 1746
Jacob Weyer Jacob Weyer
painted Die Schlacht in 1630-1655
Jacob Willemsz. Delff Jacob Willemsz. Delff
painted Allegory of the Four Elements. in 1600
Jakub Weinles Jakub Weinles
Jakub Weinles (1870 - 1935)
James Abbot McNeill Whistler James Abbot McNeill Whistler
b Lowell MA 1834 d London 1903
James Abbott McNeil Whistler James Abbott McNeil Whistler
1834-1903 James Abbott McNeill Whistler Art Locations
James Abbott Mcneill Whistler James Abbott Mcneill Whistler
American Tonalist Painter and Printmaker, 1834-1903, He was an American-born, British-based artist. Averse to sentimentality and moral allusion in painting, he was a leading proponent of the credo "art for art's sake". His famous signature for his paintings was in the shape of a stylized butterfly possessing a long stinger for a tail.
James Mcneill Whistler James Mcneill Whistler
American Painter and Printmaker, 1834-1903 James Abbott McNeill Whistler's deft brushwork and mighty ego made him one of London's best-known painters in the second half of the 1800s. Born in Massachusetts, Whistler spent most of his adult life in England and France, in an era when an American artist in Europe was something of a rarity. He specialized in landscapes and (especially later in his career) portraits; stylistically he is often linked with Claude Monet and August Renoir, though he was not exactly part of the Impressionist movement. His etchings also are highly regarded. Witty, cranky and a bit of a devil, Whistler was a regular gadabout in British society. He had a famous long-running feud with the playwright Oscar Wilde, each of them trying to outwit the other with cutting public remarks. Some critics of the era considered Whistler's work to be smudgy and too radical; after viewing Whistler's 1875 study of fireworks over the Thames, Nocturne in Black and Gold: the Falling Rocket, John Ruskin wrote: "I have seen, and heard, much of cockney impudence before now; but never expected to hear a coxcomb ask two hundred guineas for flinging a pot of paint in the public's face." Whistler successfully sued Ruskin for libel but was awarded only a farthing in damages,

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